So Phone Me Maybe: A list of iPhone/iPad batteries with gas gauge functionality

Looking for my HDQ Utility to read out your own batteries? Click here!

UPDATE: Turns out the iPhone 3G and 3GS do have gas gauges! I will add them to my list as I find out more about them.

Each iPhone generation since the iPhone 4 iPhone 3G uses a TI gas gauge and uses the HDQ bus (iOS refers to this as the SWI [single-wire interface]) to communicate with the outside world. For more information about the HDQ protocol, click here.

I’ve noticed that many of the iPhone 5S and 5C batteries that can be purchased online are reusing iPhone 4 circuits, which will cause a significant decrease in gauge accuracy (proper parameters need to be programmed into the gas gauge, and that information is chemistry dependent), and the protection circuits in the iPhone 4 battery PCB will kick into overvoltage protection mode at 4.25 volts, less than the 4.3 volts that the iPhone 5 (and newer) batteries need to charge fully.

Because I have been unable to find a list of information of each battery generation, I’m making one myself. Because nobody else has dug this deep into the fuel gauges that the iPhone uses, I have to get this information experimentally (that is, by buying various batteries from online shops; the iPhone 5S battery has been very difficult to get, besides the fake ones I mentioned earlier).

So far I’m in need of an iPhone 3G (not the 3GS) battery, as well as all iPad batteries (or, if you have my program on hand, what model the battery is intended for, the fuel gauge device (eg. bq27541, bq27545), firmware version and designed capacity.

Model Gas Gauge Firmware Designed Capacity Default Unseal Key? Comments
iPhone 3G bq27541 ? ? Yes (0x36720414) Need to acquire one of these.
iPhone 3GS bq27541 1.17 1200 mAh Yes (0x36720414) Limited feature set. My utility will throw “No response” errors when reading this battery.
iPhone 4 bq27541 1.25 1420 mAh Yes (0x36720414)
iPhone 4S bq27541 1.35 1430 mAh Yes (0x36720414)
iPhone 5 bq27545 3.10 1430 mAh No (0x52695035) Many thanks to Yann B. for finding the unseal key!
iPhone 5S bq27545 3.10 1550 mAh No (0x84966864)
iPhone 5C bq27545 3.10 1500 mAh No (0x84966864)
iPhone 6 sn27545-A4 (note 4) 5.02 1751 mAh No (0x65441236)
iPhone 6 Plus sn27545-A4 (note 4) 5.02 2855 mAh No (0x18794977)
iPhone 6S sn27546-A5 (note 5) 6.01 1690 mAh No (0x90375994)
iPhone 6S Plus sn27546-A5 (note 5) 6.01 2725 mAh No (0x11022669)
iPhone SE Unrecognized (note 6) (A1141/0x1141) 1.03 1560 mAh No (unknown) (See note 6)
Apple Watch (38mm) sn27545-A4 5.02 235 mAh No (0x09130978)
Apple Watch (42mm) sn27545-A4 5.02 245 mAh No (unknown) If anyone has one that reads “FULL ACCESS” in my program, please send it to me! 🙂
iPad (3rd gen) bq27541 1.35 11560 mAh Yes (0x36720414)

Notes:

  1. All known iPhone battery models use custom firmware, so not all of the features that the mainstream gas gauge models use are available. For example, none of these gauges will calculate the battery’s State of Health percentage (it is basically the percentage of the battery’s full charge capacity (it degrades with use) versus its designed capacity.
  2. The iPhone 5C’s battery label indicates a designed capacity of 1510 mAh, but the battery I’ve received indicates a capacity of 1550 mAh. As I have only been able to get one of these batteries that seem to be genuine, I will need to get more batteries of this type to confirm that this information is correct.
  3. The iPhone 5’s battery label indicates a designed capacity of 1440 mAh, but the fuel gauge reports 1430 mAh. The 5S battery reports 1550 mAh, but is labeled 1560 mAh. The 5C reports 1500 mAh, but is labeled 1510 mAh.
  4. The iPhone 6 and 6 Plus use a special firmware that is identified in TI’s battery software (except the very latest releases where such data was removed), and it has a very extensive feature set, and a lot of data logging features.
  5. The iPhone 6S/6S Plus use a firmware version similar to the iPhone 6/6 Plus, but with a newer chip and some features trimmed out. I’m reasonably confident that the chip is an sn27546-A5 but have no idea if it’s the official part designator.
  6. The iPhone SE battery seems to have a unique custom chip, but has gone back to a DFN-based package (similar to bq27541) rather than a BGA like the bq27545/546. It is marked “A1141” and does not respond to my HDQ adapter, only the official TI EV2300/EV2400. I have only one in my possession, so I am not 100% sure whether this is true for this series of batteries.

Looking inside an iPhone 4/4S battery

A classmate of mine had a couple broken iPhones that he ‘relieved’ of their batteries and let me take a look at them. Being the curious type I peeled away the outer layers of tape to reveal the protection circuit. I spotted a current sense resistor, and  that got me thinking…

… can it be? Yes, I found a bq27541 fuel gauge chip inside the battery! After fooling around with the battery, I found out that the battery is using the HDQ interface.

iphone battery pinoutThe HDQ bus, which stands for ‘High-speed Data Queue’, is a single-wire communications bus used by TI fuel gauges. It’s similar to Maxim’s 1-Wire protocol but runs with different protocols and timing. It operates at 7 kilobits per second (so much for ‘high speed’ right? 😛 ) and a refresh of the data memory in the TI software can take almost half a minute. However, it’s good enough for occasional polling (like every minute or so) since it’s unlikely that the gauge will be read from every second.

The bq27541(labeled BQ 7541) in the iPhone battery runs an unusual firmware version. It’s running version 1.35 and doesn’t match with any release on TI’s website. The gas gauge is sealed so initially it seems like gaining access to the Data Flash memory would be impossible. However, in non-Apple fashion, the gauge’s passwords are left at the default; 0x36720414 and 0xFFFFFFFF for the unseal and full-access keys, respectively (and it’s not the first time Apple’s done this!). Since the firmware version is unknown, I told bqEVSW to treat the chip as if it were the bq27541-V200. I then saved only the calibration, capacity, resistance and lifetime data.

Updating the firmware over HDQ was a nightmare. It took over a dozen tries for each of the two batteries I had, and the update process took 45 minutes (!) to update the bq27541 to the V200 firmware. At one point, it seemed as if I bricked the chip, but a power-on reset of the chip by shorting the cell very quickly 😀 sent the device into ROM mode (ie. firmware-update mode). From there I used bqCONFIG to update the firmware, and it was successful! Now I could use GaugeStudio to interface with the gauge rather than the unsightly bqEVSW software.

bq27541 updated to version 2.00

bq27541 updated to version 2.00

Given how long it took for me to update the firmware of the gauge, I have doubts that iPhones will update their batteries’ firmware in-system. Hell, the iPhone OS ignores the bq27541’s State of Charge readings and substitutes its own. Nice going, Apple!

Now to start going through cell phone recycling bins to pull out dead iPhone batteries for their gauges…